These are my personal tips -based on experience and research- for a great experience in Amsterdam! This resulted in a good list of tips! You can click on the bold text to get to the Google Maps location of the establishment.
A nice cheap nearby Thai place is Ocha. Around 10 for a dish.
Great cheese fondue and Entrecôte at Cafe Bernon the Nieuwmarkt square. Around 20. Website
If you want a great salad, go to one of the SLArestaurants. Around 10 for huge meal filling salads. Website
Cafe Kadijk is a more simpler Indonesian restaurant where a meal will cost you around €15. Website
The Jordaan Area is also really nice to check for restaurants.
As well as the more bohemian area “de pijp” around the daily food and clothes market the Albert Cuyp. Nice market in a neighborhood definitely worth visiting!
Chinatown around the zeedijk (cross the nieuwmarkt square) is hit or miss with Asian restaurants. Sechuan (Chinese) or Bird (thai) are alright though, around 10 to 15 for a dish.
Trust at the Albert Cuyp is a great vegan place were you pay by tip. Website
For amazing haring and kibbeling (typical Dutch fish treats) visit the stand on the nieuwmarkt square (It’s not there every day though).
Have a “broodje kroket” with mustard (white bun with a croquette filled with ragout) at Van Dobben, the dutchest snack there is.
The kroket also comes in a small balls called “bitterballen” you can buy these at almost every bar or cafe.
Best French fries at Vleminckx Sausmeesters, make sure to get them with mayonnaise or peanut sauce for the most authentic taste. You can also get a ”patatje oorlog” for a combination of mayonnaise and peanut sauce with chopped onion.
Great Coffeeshops are the Bluebird, the Grey Area, the Dampkring or De Graal (really nice to hang out, play chess and board games, they even have a 5 euro an hour recording studio out back for customers!). If you are with a big group you should visit Prix D’Amie.